Jump to content
House Price Crash Forum

Archived

This topic is now archived and is closed to further replies.

cashinmattress

Pig 26

Recommended Posts

link

Scientists at the Roslin Institute, the birthplace of Dolly the cloned sheep, have announced a milestone in a project to produce animals resistant to infections - they created the first genetically modified pig using a new technique of "gene editing".

The gene editing technique is at least 100 times more precise and efficient than existing GM technology, the researches said, and does not make use of heavily criticized antibiotic resistant genes.

Pig 26 was born last August and has been genetically engineered with "the smallest of DNA mutations".

"Out of its 3 billion bases, we have removed one exactly from where we wanted it to be removed. It's extremely easy to do," Professor Bruce Whitelaw of the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh told the Independent on Monday.

"We can do it without any marker or trace. Unless you do an audit trail there is no way that you would know how that mutation happened. It could have happened naturally, or by a DNA editor," he added.

Scientists say this method does not rely on the elaborate cloning process as previous techniques did, does not use antibiotic resistant ‘markers’, and can be performed on fertilized eggs rather than ordinary tissue cells.

Professor Bruce Whitelaw of the Roslin Institute said that the technique allowed them to produce GM animals with an efficiency of 10-15% compared to just 1% for the standard method of genetic engineering.

The new technique does not leave any trace on the animals’ genome other than the desired mutation; it merely mimics the natural evolutionary process but uses a man-made genome editor:

“With the new technology we can work directly within the zygote [fertilized egg] with an efficiency of 10 to 15 percent. In a litter of pigs at least one of the animals will have the edited event. We can get rid of antibiotic resistance and for some situations we can get rid of cloning or nuclear-transfer technology as well. I think cloning does have some baggage attached to it,” Professor Whitelaw said at the press conference.

Pig 26 is part of a program to create GM pigs that are resistant to diseases such as the African swine fever virus.

Scientists are hoping to introduce DNA mutations into domestic pigs, which will then impart disease resistance to wild pigs in Africa.

Public opposition to GM food has slowed its introduction in both plants and animals, but developments in the US mean that soon first products of this kind could hit the market: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is near to making a decision on a fast-growing GM salmon.

The fish have been created by Aquabounty Technologies of Massachusetts with a gene from the Chinook salmon, which allows it to grow to market size in half the time of conventional species.

The FDA is to give a final ruling later this year, but has already declared the GM salmon poses no major risks to health or the environment.

Oh my. Begs the question now more than ever, what is real? Is this safe?

I can only think of words by fictional Dr. Ian Malcolm, in Michael Crichtons novel 'Jurassic Park'; "Because the history of evolution is that life escapes all barriers. Life breaks free. Life expands to new territories. Painfully, perhaps even dangerously. But life finds a way."

You attempt to stomp out disease, and it will soon catch up, viciously so.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

I must admit it seems pretty good to me.

I am guessing here, but I presume they targeted the RELA gene as a variant in Warthog confers resistance to African Swine fever. I expect they engineered a mutation to provide similar in domestic pig

RELA primary research

Now, the valid argument to be had is what effect domestic pigs will have upon the ecology of African farming systems. But that is probably not the intended debate of the OP.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

I have a client...they have learned not to go to gaming.com and download the spyware...they have learned how to do this through experience.

thye just called....they were confident they only did one thing....they have spyware.

they removed one base from 3 billion choices and from exactly where they wanted...Im not convinced that one base is going to fix any one particular problem....might APPEAR to...but this lot are as interelated as a big bank set on self protection.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

You attempt to stomp out disease, and it will soon catch up, viciously so.

Well, apart from Smallpox. Polio might have gone too if it wasn't for the idiot antivaxers..

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

I have a client...they have learned not to go to gaming.com and download the spyware...they have learned how to do this through experience.

thye just called....they were confident they only did one thing....they have spyware.

they removed one base from 3 billion choices and from exactly where they wanted...Im not convinced that one base is going to fix any one particular problem....might APPEAR to...but this lot are as interelated as a big bank set on self protection.

They engineered a naturally occurring mutation that I guess (OK, I guess as I haven't gone into that much detail) has been lost from the lineage leading to domesticated European pigs due to the removal of selection pressure. Conversely, it has been retained in warthogs by their exposure to African Swine fever. Compare the RELA genes from the two lineages and understand the differences.

Quite possible for one base to fix a problem, or create one for that matter such as the relatively rare case of a mutation in the sex determining SRY gene in humans

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Well, apart from Smallpox. Polio might have gone too if it wasn't for the idiot antivaxers..

I was rather amused by all the Swansea anti-vaxers currently running for a measles vaccination now their child is vulnerable due to their anti-vaccitaion stance

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

They engineered a naturally occurring mutation that I guess (OK, I guess as I haven't gone into that much detail) has been lost from the lineage leading to domesticated European pigs due to the removal of selection pressure. Conversely, it has been retained in warthogs by their exposure to African Swine fever. Compare the RELA genes form the two lineages and understand the differences.

Quite possible for one base to fix a problem, or create one for that matter such as the relatively rare case of a mutation in the sex determining SRY in humans

Of course its possible.

I think its unlikely the only effect.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

they removed one base from 3 billion choices and from exactly where they wanted...Im not convinced that one base is going to fix any one particular problem....might APPEAR to...

It's a consequence of how DNA encodes protein. DNA is a sequence of 4 different bases e.g. ATGACTATCGAC. This is read by the protein-assembling machinery in the cell in blocks of three, so ATGACTATCGAC becomes ATG ACT ATC GAC. Each three letter block encodes a particular amino acid, and the amino acids are put together in strings to form a single protein. If you remove one of the bases, e.g. the first T, the sequence would be be read as AGA CTA TCG AC and now encodes completely different amino acids and a completely different protein from the point where the deletion occurred onwards. If the protein was present on the pig cell surface and was being used by a virus as a way to attach to and enter pig cells, and that protein has now been essentially deleted from pig cells entirely, the virus may no longer be able to enter the cells.

Small changes in DNA can result in big changes in biological outcomes.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frameshift_mutation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Of course its possible.

I think its unlikely the only effect.

It depends entirely upon the action of the mutation.

There is lots of natural variability, we are all different.

A single mutation may easily have no more of an effect on the phenotype that to change an amino acid that alters the affinity of the receptor that has co-evolved on the parasite1.

Of course, disrupting the balance between parasite and host in a natural system could have profound ecological consequences that you may not have considered

Edited to add

1. Or as Dorkins pointed out, it could lead to a frameshift mutation that may knock out the protein altogether.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Of course its possible.

I think its unlikely the only effect.

In the example I described, you lose whatever function the protein used to be carrying out. You'd have to study this empirically of course, but biological organisms are messy things with a lot of redundant or obsolete elements. There will no doubt be some proteins that your cells produce that mine don't, and vice versa. A pig minus a fairly unimportant protein could well be a perfectly healthy pig.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The interviewed scientist said they removed one base, so I assume it's probably a frameshift mutation.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Pigs share too many diseases with us for my liking, sometimes I'm not sure the Muslims are wrong.

The idea of GM pigs, specifically GM pigs where the genes that relate to disease response have been played with, doesn't fill me with joy. Maybe this one's ok, what about the next one?

Let's fast forward a few years to rural China, these GM pigs are in the pen with hens, ducks and other species, and wild birds constantly interact with them.

The farmer comes to muck them out, he's got the flu....

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Pigs share too many diseases with us for my liking, sometimes I'm not sure the Muslims are wrong.

The idea of GM pigs, specifically GM pigs where the genes that relate to disease response have been played with, doesn't fill me with joy. Maybe this one's ok, what about the next one?

Let's fast forward a few years to rural China, these GM pigs are in the pen with hens, ducks and other species, and wild birds constantly interact with them.

The farmer comes to muck them out, he's got the flu....

As you say, we are talking about this example. To extrapolate to other examples is worth the argument but is not the case under consideration.

Of course, your first point is right and is the reason why you can eat rare beef and lamb, but historically1, pork should be well-cooked.

1. Historically, because many of the diseases have been eradicated in western agriculture and as a result many have relaxed their approach to cooking pork.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Pigs share too many diseases with us for my liking, sometimes I'm not sure the Muslims are wrong.

The idea of GM pigs, specifically GM pigs where the genes that relate to disease response have been played with, doesn't fill me with joy. Maybe this one's ok, what about the next one?

Let's fast forward a few years to rural China, these GM pigs are in the pen with hens, ducks and other species, and wild birds constantly interact with them.

The farmer comes to muck them out, he's got the flu....

Dont leave us in suspense! What happens next?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

So you remove one part of the genome to stop a virus attack.

Does that mean that a different unknown virus that's a lot more serious could potentially mutate with the aid of this altered part of DNA.

Reminds me of a pal who used to play Arkanoid who thought it was more important to catch the bonus brick than save the ball!

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

So you remove one part of the genome to stop a virus attack.

Does that mean that a different unknown virus that's a lot more serious could potentially mutate with the aid of this altered part of DNA.

Reminds me of a pal who used to play Arkanoid who thought it was more important to catch the bonus brick than save the ball!

everything you do has a consequence

if you don't do the mutation might some unknown virus mutate and also become virulent ?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

  • Recently Browsing   0 members

    No registered users viewing this page.

  • 243 Brexit, House prices and Summer 2020

    1. 1. Including the effects Brexit, where do you think average UK house prices will be relative to now in June 2020?


      • down 5% +
      • down 2.5%
      • Even
      • up 2.5%
      • up 5%



×
×
  • Create New...

Important Information

We have placed cookies on your device to help make this website better. You can adjust your cookie settings, otherwise we'll assume you're okay to continue.